The evolutionary success in information technology has been sustained by the rapid growth of sensor technology. Recently, advances in sensor technology have promoted the ambitious requirement to build intelligent systems that can be controlled by external stimuli along with independent operation, adaptivity, and low energy expenditure. Among various sensing techniques, field-effect transistors (FETs) with channels made of two-dimensional (2D) materials attract increasing attention for advantages such as label-free detection, fast response, easy operation, and capability of integration. With atomic thickness, 2D materials restrict the carrier flow within the material surface and expose it directly to the external environment, leading to efficient signal acquisition and conversion. This review summarizes the latest advances of 2D-materials-based FET (2D FET) sensors in a comprehensive manner that contains the material, operating principles, fabrication technologies, proof-of-concept applications, and prototypes. First, a brief description of the background and fundamentals is provided. The subsequent contents summarize physical, chemical, and biological 2D FET sensors and their applications. Then, we highlight the challenges of their commercialization and discuss corresponding solution techniques. The following section presents a systematic survey of recent progress in developing commercial prototypes. Lastly, we summarize the long-standing efforts and prospective future development of 2D FET-based sensing systems toward commercialization.
Chem. Rev. 2022,DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.1c00924
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